Wednesday, January 24, 2018

For the love of Tucson: Creating a desert oasis to combat climate change


When I first moved to Tucson, it rained most every day during monsoon season. I remember waiting for it to cool off in the evening so we could take the little ones to the pool. Inevitably we would wait in car as a storm swept by. Then we would enjoy the most luminous sunsets as we swam - storm clouds catching the brilliant hues of the setting sun. That was the beginning of my love affair with this stunning desert. But it wasn’t until I witnessed the ravages of record heat and sparse rain on our own little monsoon garden that my heart became totally invested in fighting the effects of climate change on our desert town.


I've often pondered how climate change would affect Tucson.  Nobody knows exactly.  But, from what I've learned, climate change often seems to intensify the extreme weather of a particular area. In that case, Tucson would continue to experience rising temperatures, prolonged droughts and more severe flash floods. That means even more flood damage as storms further erode the banks of hard, dried river beds.

The desert will eventually return to it's natural state with or without us. But if we don't stop savaging the earth for profit, Tucson could become a stark, barren desert. If we don't change our ways now, even our iconic saguaros won't be able to survive the scorching heat.


I sometimes wonder what will become of my little house after finally paying it off. If temperatures continue to rise, would my boys still want to live here? Would they even be able to sell the house if they decided to leave? That's one reason I'm dedicated to finding ways to lessen the impact of climate change on our town or at least find ways to live here comfortably.

Anyone who is paying attention knows we need to reduce our dependency on fossil fuels and curb our wasteful consumer lifestyle if we want to stave off climate change. But for Tucson to be more resilient, we need to learn to responsibly use the resources the desert has to offer: the power of the sun, native flora and fauna, and our seasonal rainwater.

We can start by implementing solar energy* to keep our air-conditioners running and planting native shade trees to cool our neighborhoods. But to be really sustainable we need to start living in harmony with the desert. No, I'm not talking about living off the land like the Hohokam before us. I'm not talking about giving up all of our modern conveniences. (Most of them can be adapted or retrofitted to be more environmentally sound.) I'm talking about restoring as much of the desert habitat as possible in an urban environment. I'm envisioning our neighborhoods as desert oases with edible forests of native plants and desert rain gardens with drought tolerant heritage crops. You've probably seen some lush desert landscaping or cool community gardens popping up around town. That's what inspired Dan and I to plant our own edible forest irrigated with rainwater and greywater and to start experimenting with drought tolerant crops. We are working towards food security.


How do we transition Tucson into an urban desert oasis? The first step is embracing the nature of the desert we inhabit. Stop trying to force it into something it's not. Stop bulldozing it and paving it over for perpetual development. Shut off the sprinklers that water those little patches of grass in front of businesses. Sorry, manicured lawns don't belong in the desert - native plants do. We need to rethink our perception of tidy xeriscape landscaping and stop suffocating our native vegetation with plastic and mounds of gravel. Why on earth are we raking up all that great organic matter that could be nourishing our soil and allowing the rainwater to sink in?

Noooo!
One of the biggest concerns of living in the desert is having a reliable source of water.  Right now Tucson depends on CAP water. A whole coal-powered generating plant was built to run the pumps that push our water 336 miles uphill from the Colorado River. Unfortunately, that source isn't sustainable. As droughts continue, there will be more competition for that diminishing water supply.

The good news is that there is enough annual rainfall to supply every Tucsonan's water needs - if we harvest the storm water. We need to redo our flood control infrastructure so water isn't directed to the streets to evaporate on its way out of town. But we don't have to wait for the city or county to approve expensive infrastructure improvements. We can all incorporate rainwater harvesting features that keep the water in our yards to irrigate our native landscapes, edible forests and drought tolerant gardens.


Diverting roof water to mulch covered catchment basins not only conserves water but helps to restore our aquifers as well. If you wanna see how it's done, you can tour Watershed Management Group's Living Lab and Learning Center. Using a combination of cisterns and earthworks, WMG harvests enough rainwater to meet all of their needs - including irrigating some fruit trees! But more important are their efforts to restore Tucson's aquifers and get our rivers flowing again.

Underground cistern at WMG's living lab

By returning our yards to a more natural state that allows rainwater to sink in, our hope is that it will replenish the Tucson basin and get the rivers flowing year around.

But I have an even greater vision!
 
If we could get everyone on board, we might even be able restore the riparian habitats by the rivers. We could transition to green infrastructure throughout the city. We could all use earthworks to sink in more of the storm water in our yards, schools, churches, business properties, and empty lots. That would slow down the rush of water before it gets to the rivers and washes. Then the county could stop bulldozing the native vegetation in our washes for flood control. That native vegetation would act as a sponge allowing flood waters to sink in! There would be less flood damage. (Extreme weather costs Tucson and Pima Country $9,449,667 a year.)

Just imagine! If we could stop development in our floodplains, we could see the return of the mesquite bosques or stands of sycamore, willow, cottonwoods, ash, and black walnut trees that once hugged the flowing Santa Cruz. The riparian habitat would attract more birds and other wildlife to Tucson. Arizona is already a bird lovers paradise with ecotourism contributing to our $21.2 billion tourist industry. Imagine Tucson becoming the hub of ecotourism!


This may seem impossible with our current "development is progress" mentality. But consider this - the city has plans to relocate family homes and businesses to widen Broadway. That is going in the wrong direction if we want Tucson to be sustainable. It encourages the growth of our car culture that accelerates climate change.
     
What is your vision for Tucson?  Would you like to ride your bike along a flowing river surrounded by twisty mesquite? Pick a fig from the orchard in the park? Enjoy the sight of  hummingbirds, butterflies and other pollinators fluttering around desert shrubs in a traffic median? Snack on some yummy edible weeds without worrying about pesticides? Stop by a neighborhood garden stand for some freshly harvested salad fixin's? Wouldn't it be cool if a local farmer grew drought tolerant heritage white wheat and amaranth by the Santa Cruz river to be milled right here in Tucson and baked into healthy bread in Tucson's own native grains bakery?

That's me holding a bag of freshly milled mesquite flour.
I have a dream. I believe Tucson can be self-sustaining if we reduce our dependency on fossil fuels, cut down on waste, restore our desert flora and fauna, and use the desert's resources responsibly.  Instead of polluting our water by mining coal, we can use one of the desert's most abundant resources - the sun! Why not power our vehicles, homes and businesses with solar? We can retrofit our older houses and business buildings to conserve energy and water. We can have neighborhood micro food parks with safe bike and walking paths. We can make Tucson THE ecotourism destination by attracting more birds and wildlife to our urban desert.

Brad Lancaster shows how a curb cut lets in street water to irrigate mesquite trees.
We already have a great community working to make Tucson more sustainable: Sustainable Tucson, Feeding Tucson, Community Water Coalition, Sonora Environmental Research Institute, Sonoran Institute, Watershed Management Group, Tucson Water, the 2030 District, Local First, Zero Waste Tucson, UA Compost Cats,  Desert Harvesters, Iskashitaa Refugee Network, Arizona Master Naturalists, The Sierra Club, Tucson Audubon Society, Mission Garden, Trees for Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH, the Pima County Seed Library, Living Streets Alliance, the U of A, the Desert Museum, and the Community Food Bank's Community Gardens. Several schools like Manzo Elementary and Changemaker High have gardens and there are already a number of neighborhood gardens.

The Pima County Department of Environmental Quality is working on a manual for better green infrastructure. The City of Tucson and Pima County have pledged to fight climate change.

Let's work together for a sustainable future for Tucson!

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Digging in the New Year

Our edible forest is coming along nicely. But what ever motivated Dan, hacking and coughing, to shovel out our greywater basin and plant saplings on the first day of the New Year? 

After a devastating year of national crises that left him reeling, perhaps it was time for a little grounding -  digging in for a good year of action.  


Implementing earthworks, like our greywater catchment basin, is always a process. We did several loads of laundry to see just how well the wash water would sink into the ground.  There was still a shallow pool of grey water after two days. (Now I know why it is called greywater. It was literally grey.) As Dan suspected, he needed to increase the surface area so the wash water would infiltrate better. 


Luckily, it was time for another load of whites. While the load was spinning, Dan planted some curry plants in the dirt he had dug out of the basin.


What better way to start the new year than to plant a little hope.


Dan delighted in freeing our little saguaro's tightly wound roots from last year's battered pot and planting it soundly in 2018. 


Does my baby know how to celebrate or what!?